Brandel Library

HIST 3140: Society & Culture in the Middle Ages

Writing and Citing Guides

Chicago Style Guides

Guides to Research and Writing

Citing Primary Sources

Citing primary sources can be tricky. To get started:

  • Start with the appropriate style for the format you're looking at (book, section of a book, website, etc.)
  • Give the name of the medieval author first, if there is one, followed by the title and original date as it appears in your source, or a description.
  • Give the publication date if available; accessed dates are only necessary if no other dates are available.
  • Give the URL or publication information of the modern edition.
  • Follow the usual Chicago or Turabian style differences between footnotes and bibliographies.

For example:

  • Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, trans. Theodore Silverstein (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974), 57.
  • Gerbert of Auriallac, archbishop of Reims to Adelaide of Aquitaine, queen of the Franks (spring 997), Epistolae: Medieval Women's Latin Letters, accessed September 20, 2019,
  • Fulbert of Chartres, “On Feudal Obligations, 1020,” Internet Medieval Sourcebook, January 1996,

Writing Center

Visit North Park's Writing Center on the first floor of the library for help brainstorming, drafting, and editing your paper.