Brandel Library

HIST 1000: Global Themes in History (Clay)

Evaluating Sources

Evaluating Sources - CRAAP Test

The CRAAP Test -- When searching for information on the Web you’re going to find lots of it … but is it accurate and reliable? Whether reading a book or a website, be an information skeptic--scrutinize, analyze, and evaluate your sources.


When was the information published or posted?
• Has the information been revised or updated?
• Is the information current or out-of-date for your topic?


• How well does this suit your topic or answer your questions?
• Who is the intended audience?

• Would you be comfortable using this source for a research paper?


Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?
• Are the author’s credentials or organizational affliations given?
• What are the author’s qualifications to write on the topic?

• Is there a way to contact the author?


Where does the information come from?
• Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
• Can you verify any of the information?

• Does the language or tone seem biased and free of emotion?


Is the purpose to inform, sell, entertain, or persuade?
• Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions clear?
• Is the information fact? opinion? propaganda?

Why Evaluate?

Evaluating sources of information is a crucial step in the research process. The world is full of information to be found— however, not all of it is valid, useful, or accurate.

  • When deciding to use a source, consider its authoritativeness and perspective.
  • Is it a useful, reliable resource for your specific research need? Why?
  • While writing your paper, consider how you can use sources to back up your claims.

For more information on evaluating sources, visit the site below:

Evaluating Sources